Using a number of concepts from Weber’s sociology of religion (economic ethics/ethos, typology of asceticism/mysticism, Weber’s reception of Nietzsche’s idea of ressentiment), the author addresses the economic ethos of contemporary Russian Orthodoxy. An analysis of “humility” (smirenie) — one of the key virtues of the contemporary economic ethics of the Russian Orthodox Church — is provided. The author builds a typology of various understandings of humility in Russian Orthodoxy today in connection with the economic practices of Orthodox actors. This article distinguishes seven types of humility. Each of the types may be associated with its vision of economics and social relations. They are grouped into two main clusters — humility associated with obedience to another person and humility not associated with such obedience. The author concludes that this key ethical category of Orthodoxy can denote very different types of relations and economic motivations. This, in turn, means that very different types can be preached at the same time, including those that have more or less productive and even possibly destructive ramifications. Examples are given that show that the fostering and development of some ethical ideas in social life can lead to ambiguous or problematic consequences.