This article offers a reconstruction of the social ideals of the Russian spiritualists. The main sources include texts revealing spiritualists’ ideas about the structure of the spiritual world, the structure and characteristics of spiritual circles, and literary works by spiritualists that reflected their social ideals. Although the social and political views of Russian spiritualists were mostly conservative, their ontological views contained elements of social radicalism. The author divides Russian spiritualists into two types — the rationalists and the traditionalists — depending on their attitude towards the Orthodox Church, Christian theology and their specific views of the spiritual world. All spiritualists viewed society critically, as gripped with a disease. Rationalist spiritualism was critical towards Christian dogma and practice, and although its supporters advocated the preservation of the social and political status quo, they hoped for both gradual social and political transformation and the acquisition of social ideals in the spiritual world. The traditionalists, despite their commitment to monarchy and the institution of the Church, expected a millenarian upheaval and thus challenged the social and political order. Overall, the spiritualists’ social ideals are close to communitarian social projects based upon the idea of Christian brotherhood.