Whereas a political market has developed in Western Europe in which negative clichés about Islam and Muslims are in demand, in Russia this market has not appeared. There are two reasons for this: the “autochthonous” nature of Islam in Russia and the specific features of the current political system. Due to these two factors, public articulation of negative attitudes toward Islam and Muslims is hampered and par- ties with an openly Islamophobic agenda are unlikely to emerge. At the same time, Russia is experiencing tensions similar to those in Western European societies. They include conflicts concerning the presence of Islamic symbols in the public sphere, such as wearing the hijab in public schools and building mosques in regions where Muslims are a minority. In spite of the officially promoted rhetoric of “interfaith harmony,” Russian society is deeply polarized. In regions where Muslims predominate the patterns of Islamic presence are different. As for migration into Russia from outside, this has not been an issue of public debate until very recently; Central Asian immigrants have been perceived in terms of their ethnicity rather than religion. A shift in perception has begun to occur due to three reasons: (a) a reflection of the Western agenda in Russian media; (b) the increasing visibility of Muslim immigrants in public space; and (c) the involvement of Central Asian newcomers in several publicized terrorist attacks.